By G. J. Heij, T. Schneider
This booklet comprises the consequences and conclusions of in depth examine at the explanations and results of acidification of forests/forest soils and heathland within the Netherlands. In 1985 the Dutch precedence Programme on Acidification was once begun as a way to supply a extra concrete shape to the expanding curiosity of policy-makers within the results of pollution on ecosystems particularly. within the final 3 years, the learn has excited about acquiring a extra exact estimate of the emission of ammonia at the deposition of SOx, NOy and NHx, and in addition on quantifying results on woodland and heathland ecosystems. This quantification of results integrated experimental paintings version analyses, and derivation of serious quite a bit and degrees for wooded area and heathland ecosystems. in addition, situation analyses have been made with the Dutch Acidification structures version (DAS) with a view to review the effectiveness of coverage measures. The study itself, which shaped the root for this publication, has been defined within the studies on person tasks. A precis of the clinical effects and conclusions is given in thematic studies (added as annex).
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Additional resources for Acidification Research in The Netherlands: Final Report of the Dutch Priority Programme on Acidification
15 - acidifying pollutants in the Netherlands can be calculated on the basis of different emission levels in the Netherlands and the rest of Europe. The deposition loads and concentration levels of acidifying pollutants are subsequently used to calculate the effects of acidification on a number of receptors. Several scenario analyses were made with the DAS model. These analyses are explorations of possible future situations rather than forecasts of effects. The scenario calculations with the model have been divided into three categories: - calculations based on historical emission data - calculations based on emissions in the near future (the period until the year 2000) as estimated in the Netherlands Acidification Abatement Plan and the Netherlands Environmental Policy Plan -t (NEPP+) together with the resulting (estimated) depositions in 2000 - calculations based on deposition targets (for the period 2000 - 2050).
As a result the critical load values derived are relatively low. This means that already at this deposition level these forests will be quite well protected, although some reserve is in order here owing to the problem of discrepancies between throughfall and deposition. The forest ecosystem is still not completely protected at this situation, however. At the abovementioned acid deposition level other harmful effects such as eutrophication as a result of exceedingly high nitrogen deposition - will still occur.
2% of the fertilizer-N is emitted as ammonia to the air (Thomas and Erisman, 1990). This rather low loss is due to the type of fertilizer applied. The yearly amount of ammonia emission from N-fertilizers in the Netherlands is estimated thus to be about 10 kton (Erisman, 1989). The ammonia emission from industrial sources has not been investigated within the framework of the Dutch Priority Programme on Acidification. The emission is mainly due to the production of N-fertilizers, ammonia, nimc acid and urea.