Download Adaptation and Natural Selection by George Christopher Williams PDF

By George Christopher Williams

This can be my favourite ebook at the subject, and if you are interpreting this then you definately should still most likely get it.
It's no longer really as available as Richard Dawkins' books, yet i locate this publication to be extra a extra whole and compelling learn than TSG or TBW.

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If increasing DNA content would permit the carrying of more information and thereby allow greater precision or versatility of adaptation, I presume that such an increase would take place. Economy and efficiency are universal characteristics of biological mechanisms, and the DNA coding system should certainly not be an exception. Its manifest purpose is the carrying of information, and it is reasonable to assume that it is in relation to this function that its quantity is optimized. The optimum would be determined by the amount of information that can be maintained by selection in the face of randomizing processes.

I would suspect that long before the Cambrian most phylogenetic lineages had established an optimum amount of DNA and had fully optimized its burden of information. This conclusion is supported by Blum's (1963) reasoning on the rate of approach to perfection in adaptation in a constant environment. His thinking was quite different from Kimura's and amounts to an estimate of the proportion of untried alleles at each locus after a given period of time. The conclusion depends on estimates of mutation rate per generation, but with an average mutation rate of 10-6 there would be very little pos38 NATURAL SELECTION, ADAPTATION & PROGRESS sible progress remaining after 107 generations, or perhaps a thousand years in a protist population.

By the Pliocene only one path of progress remained open—that which led to man" (1954, p. 11). Huxley admits that the details of the process of progressing to higher levels would have been unpredictable at any one point in geological time, but says, "On the other hand, once we can look back on the facts we realize that it could have happened in no other way" (1953, p. 128). The force that drives and guides evolutionary progress is said to be natural selection. This argument is an excellent example of how one can abide by the outward forms of the theory but violate its spirit.

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