By Michael Cooperson
Аль-Мамун (786—833) — багдадский халиф из династии Аббасидов.Сын Харуна аль-Рашида. Мать Мамуна была персидского происхождения. После смерти отца халифом стал его брат Аль-Амин, а Мамун стал губернатором Хорасана. В ходе вспыхнувшей гражданской войны, Мамун в 813 г. захватил Багдад и воцарился. Привлек к управлению государством ученых и основал в Багдаде Дом Мудрости (Бейт аль-хикма), созданную в подражание старинной персидской академии Джундишапура.В 827 г. по его повелению (и при его финансировании) были проведены градусные измерения дуги меридиана в долине Синджар, осуществлён перевод труда Птолемея на арабский язык («Альмагест»); в 829 г. в Багдаде основана астрономическая обсерватория.
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Extra info for Al-Ma’mun
More specific information about the curriculum can be gleaned from a contemporary list of subjects taught to children. The ordering of these items appears to reflect the order in which they were taught. The latter is no mean feat,since the text is approximately 6300 verses long and must be recited with precise attention to elision, vowel length, and grammatical inflection. The same method may have been used in al-Ma’mun’s time as well. But knowing the text still meant being able to recite it (which al-Ma’mun reportedly always did in a very loud voice because his first teacher had been hard of hearing).
In addition to supporting religious scholars, dispensing justice, and making a display of piety, al-Ma’mun and al-Fadl did several other things to strengthen their position in Khurasan. This move was particularly welcome, as the previous governor had been notorious for his rapacious tax gathering. Then, they made overtures to the petty kings of the region. Some of these kings were nominally subject to the Abbasids, while others had maintained their independence by playing the Muslims off against the Turks.
Some modern historians have suggested that al-Rashid deposed the Barmakis to ensure that they would not interfere with the arrangements he had made for the succession. If this was indeed his aim, it was to be thwarted by one of Ja‘far’s protégés, an Iranian named al-Fadl ibn Sahl. During the days of the Barmaki ascendancy, al-Fadl had made a name for himself as a translator from Persian to Arabic. To further his career, he converted from Zoroastrianism to Islam at the hands of al-Ma’mun. After the fall of the Barmakis, al-Fadl remained in al-Ma’mun’s service and soon became his most trusted adviser.