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By V. S. Naipaul

Naipaul's debatable account of his travels throughout the Islamic international used to be hailed by means of the recent Republic as "the such a lot remarkable paintings on modern Islam to have seemed in a really lengthy time."

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As we descend down the hierarchy the intelligences diminish in power, and the Active Intellect is so far down the hierarchy that it cannot emanate eternal beings, by contrast with what is above it. Nonetheless, there is nothing really contingent in the universe, according to Avicenna. If something is possibly existent, then it must come to pass at some time; if something remains potentially existent but never comes about, then this is because it cannot come about. If a possibility is actualized, its existence is necessitated by its cause.

The prophet and the philosopher know the same thing, but they are obliged to express that knowledge differently, since the prophet has political skills not shared by the philosopher, who only has intellectual skills. Citizens in the imperfect states will find it impossible to perfect their thinking, but they will not necessarily be punished as a result. But if they live in ignorant cities, cities which do not understand the structure of the world, they will not survive as a consequence of their inability to perfect their intellectual abilities and so have no idea of what is happening.

The verbal root wjd means ‘to find’ (wajada) and is one of the main words used to represent ‘being’ in Arabic attempts to replicate Greek ontology, with the present passive y¯ujadu, and the past passive wujida, leading to the nominal form mawj¯ud. Al-mawj¯ud means ‘what is found’ or ‘what exists’, and a derivative, wuj¯ud, is the abstract noun which ended up being used to represent existence. Wuj¯ud is often used to represent the copula, the English word ‘is’ where this is used as a predicate, and it is also used to represent existence.

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