By Daniel Erik Otzen
Summing up nearly a decade of biomedical learn, this topical and eagerly awaited guide is the 1st reference at the subject to include contemporary breakthroughs in amyloid learn.
the 1st half covers the structural biology of amyloid fibrils and pre-fibrillar assemblies, together with an outline of present types for amyloid formation. the second one half appears on the prognosis and biomedical research of amyloid in people and in animal versions, whereas the ultimate part discusses pharmacological ways to manipulating amyloid and likewise appears to be like at its physiological roles in reduce and better organisms.
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Extra info for Amyloid Fibrils and Prefibrillar Aggregates: Molecular and Biological Properties
For example, in the structure of GNNQQNY , the glutamine and asparagine side-chains form amide hydrogen bonds with neighboring layers, stabilizing the steric zipper structure. 2 Stability of Amyloid Fibers Whereas single β-sheets form and break up easily, some amyloid ﬁbers are very stable. 5 M NaOH . 2 explain this unusual stability. In each sheet of these steric-zipper structures, virtually every main-chain amide group is hydrogen bonded, both to the strand above it in the sheet, and the strand below.
We can speculate, for example, that chaperones may be very effective at neutralizing the species formed by primary nucleation, particularly before any conversion to amyloid-like forms occurs. But once this stage is passed, secondary process, such as fragmentation and aggregate-dependent catalysis of oligomer formation, coupled with aggregate growth, can give rise to both a rapid rise in the quantities of aggregates and a continuing generation of potentially toxic oligomers . 6 Strategies for Therapeutic Intervention Amyloid-related disorders differ from other more well known forms of medical conditions, such as bacterial and viral diseases, or even cancer and heart disease, as they are triggered by the failure of control and regulatory processes to prevent individual protein molecules reverting from their functional states to a persistent misfolded state whose interactions can disrupt the normal processes of life.
2008) Paired beta-sheet structure of an Abeta(1–40) amyloid ﬁbril revealed by electron microscopy. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. , 105, 7462–7466. F¨andrich, M. M. (2002) The behaviour of polyamino acids reveals an inverse side chain effect in amyloid structure formation. , 21, 5682–5690. , Vendruscolo, 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. E. (2007) Role of intermolecular forces in deﬁning material properties of protein nanoﬁbrils. Science, 318, 1900–1903. E. (2006) Secondary structure of alphasynuclein oligomers: characterization by Raman and atomic force microscopy.