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1 9 6 0 . 1 0 . STIEFEL, E . , 'Altes und Neues über Numerische Quadratur'. ZAMM, 41 ( 1 9 6 1 ) p. 4 0 8 - 4 1 3 . Jovial—Programming Language for Real-time Command Systems C. J . SHAW System Development Corporation, Santa Monica, California INTRODUCTION I N J u n e 1958, the System Development Corporation initiated a research project to investigate the procedure-oriented programming language con­ cept. The preliminary results of this effort were quite similar in purpose to the A L G O L 58 specifications, published later that year, and it was decided to adopt much of the A L G O L notation for the convenience of standardiza­ tion.

E. when I ask for the semantics of my language, I can say nothing about it without considering the listener. g. when I deliver a monologue on an otherwise uninhabited isle—it makes remarkably little difference whether I speak nonsense or not, so little, in fact, that under these circumstances On the Design of Machine Independent Programming Languages 33 ' m e a n i n g ' becomes an empty concept. M y utterances can only have meaning by virtue of a listener, and what is more, the reaction of my listener determines what my utterances mean.

T h e special signal' Mean­ ingless ' may be one ofits possible reactions. The concept' redundancy' only has a right of existence as long as it is not our intention to provoke this special signal 'Meaningless' as the machine's reaction: as soon as we include this reaction in the set of'intended reactions' no program can sin against the language rules anymore and we must therefore regard every arbitrary text as acceptable. I assume that evoking the reaction' Meaningless' will never be our intention and our language therefore remains redundant as long as the signal' Meaningless' belong to the set of possible reactions of the defining machine.

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