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By Donald Langmuir

Langmuir offers a radical presentation of normal chemical concentrations, platforms and procedures to aid readers (1) comprehend controls at the chemical caliber of floor and subsurface waters, and (2) distinguish among the normal and the anthropogenic. not like such a lot authors, whose civil/sanitary engineering backgrounds advertise a extra aquatic chemistry viewpoint, Langmuir?s geology/geochemistry adventure focuses assurance at the chemical interactions among water and geological fabrics. The publication presents priceless education in utilizing within the geochemical computing device code MINTEQA2 as an fundamental problem-solving device.

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1986, Tables I and 7). 5Parameters and K values at 25°C were obtained by fitting calculated values provided by Smith et al. (1986, Table 7), which were themselves obtained using the equation of Helgeson (1967, 1%9). "TIte temperature function for NH" has been obtained by fitting values given by Henley (1984). which were apparently derived from Hitch and Mesmer (1976). 7Baes and Mesmer (1976) for the value at 2SOC only. The slope of the function above 25°C is from Volosov et al. (1972). 8Barberro et al.

IISiebert and Hostetler (1977a). 12Busenberg et al. (1984). IlBusenberg and Plummer (1986). 14 Siebert and Hostetler (1977b). 15Langmuir and Melchior (1985). Ksp(gypsum) = K,p(anhydrite) = 10-164 at 56°C. Anhydrite is metastable below about 56°C at unit activity of water. 16 Parameters and K values for 25°C were obtained by fitting experimental log K,p data given by Paige et al. (1992). 17Langmuir and Riese (1985). 18Reardon and Beckie (1987). I~he temperature functions are from Nordstrom and May (1989).

5761'1) I. The linearity of such a plot is thus evidence that Mi,o is constant, independent of temperature. The value of L'lH,o can then be evaluated from the slope of the plot. The equilibrium constant at T2 for reactions involving only condensed phases may be fairly accurately predicted using the integrated van't Hoff equation. K2 for reactions with aqueous ions may also be predicted accurately in most cases using Eq. 77), as long as T2 is within ± 10 to 15°C of 25T. [n the more general case the enthalpy of the reaction is not constant and L'lCp~"* n.

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