By G. Slutkin (auth.), Prof. F. Paccaud, Dr. J. P. Vader, Prof. F. Gutzwiller (eds.)
In so much nations, basic prevention programmes opposed to the HIV / AIDS epidemic were applied. basically, 3 degrees of intervention could be pointed out: - nationwide campaigns directed to the final inhabitants; so much of them are multi section campaigns geared toward delivering information regarding HIV transmission and protecting behaviour; they use many of the mass media channels and are regularly directed to sexual behaviour modifi cation; - community-based interventions, addressed to precise objective popula tions; those populations were normally chosen in line with either the excessive hazard of an infection (gay males and prostitutes) and the trouble to arrive the individuals of those groups (intravenous drug users); - person trying out and counselling, frequently supported via public money or huge non-governmental corporations. significant efforts were dedicated to the improvement and the implemen tation of those preventive programmes, either when it comes to human re assets and monetary help. nevertheless, in such a lot nations, a ways much less power has been placed into the review of those campaigns. This hole isn't really defined via the truth that assessment of AIDS/HIV cam paigns is a wholly new problem when it comes to technique: there are classical equipment, constructed over 20 years and utilized in different fields of prevention.
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Additional resources for Assessing AIDS Prevention: Selected papers presented at the international conference held in Montreux (Switzerland), October 29–November 1, 1990
60 70 80 90 47 reported cases are shown combined for both sexes, and for men and women individually. The figure shows interesting peaks around both the first and second world wars, perhaps reSUlting from changes in the stable patterns of sexual behaviour during socially disrupted times. A sharp increase begins in the early 1960s reaching a peak in 1970, and then declining sharply to reach, by 1982, its lowest level at any time since 1915. The decline then continues to 1987. While a number of explanations for the peak in the 1960s which was also seen, somewhat later in Denmark, Canada and the USA, have been proposed1 2 , we do not intend to discuss them here.
For the majority of the STDs it is difficult to ascribe accurate numerical values to these factors. Perhaps the best that current knowledge will allow is a broad relative description of these parameters. Our attempt to do this for some of the STDs is shown in Table 4. Table 4 suggests that sexually transmitted gonorrhoea infection might satisfy our requirements for an indicator of sexual contact rate. 92 for female acquisition from infected males 7 • The time to become infectious is estimated at one to two days.
The problems of interpreting time trends in STD occurrence as an indicator of the success or otherwise of AIDS/HIV prevention are similar, whether we use STD incidence as a proxy measure for HIV incidence, or for sexual behaviour. We have already dealt at some length with the question of the adequacy of an STD as an indicator. Problems may however also arise from a number of other sources, some of which are listed below. We will consider each in turn. Problems in the interpretation of time trends in STD incidence arise from questions about: 1.