By Shan S. Wong
College of Texas wellbeing and fitness technological know-how middle, Houston. Biochemistry - complicated learn assessment.
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Additional info for Chemistry of Protein Conjugation and Cross-Linking
Should alter the membrane potential of a neuron by 58 mV. This relation can be tested in experiments in which the extracellular concentration of this ion is altered and the resulting membrane potential measured with a sharp or patch microelectrode. 8); this condition is rarely encountered in neurons but it seems to be more common for glial cells (which sometimes are termed Kϩ electrodes because their membrane potential is linearly dependent on Kϩ). In the case of neurons, nonlinearity of this plot is frequently seen, particularly at low levels of extracellular Kϩ.
Membrane potential (Vm) is by convention the difference between the potential of the internal and external faces of the membrane (Vm ϭ Vi Ϫ Vo). 4). We have seen above that in the intracellular and extracellular media the concentration of positive ions is equal to that of negative ions. However, there is a very small excess of positive and negative ions accumulated on each side of the membrane. 5). This creates a difference of potential between the two faces of the membrane: the external side is more positive than the internal side, which makes Vm ϭ Vi Ϫ Vo, negative.
Ions passively move through open channels from the medium where their concentration is high to the medium where their concentration is lower. 5a). Since the extracellular concentrations of Naϩ, Ca2ϩ and ClϪ are higher than the respective intracellular ones, these ions will diffuse passively towards the intracellular medium (when Naϩ, Ca2ϩ or ClϪ permeable channels are open) as a result of their concentration gradient. In contrast, Kϩ will move from the intracellular medium to the extracellular one (when Kϩ permeable channels are open).