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Additional info for Cosmological evolution in brane-worlds with large transverse dimensions: Inflation and dark matter

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In the latter case it includes gravity, and is therefore called supergravity. Supersymmetry is the only framework in which we seem to be able to understand light fundamental scalars. 1. The Standard Model of particle physics and supersymmetry simply due to the presence of fundamental scalars. Supersymmetry seems to be intimately connected with gravity. So there are a number of theoretical arguments that suggest that nature might be supersymmetric, and that supersymmetry might manifest itself at energies of order the weak interaction scale.

All of these non-gauge interactions are called Yukawa couplings. To have a renormalizable theory, W is at most cubic in the fields, corresponding to a potential which is at most quartic. From the above expressions, in particular Eq. 45), one sees that the overall phase of W is not physically significant. An internal symmetry can either leave W invariant, or alter its phase. The latter case corresponds to what is called an R-symmetry. Because W is holomorphic, the internal symmetries restrict its form much more than is the case for the actual potential V .

142) Hence, if we observe two widely-separated parts of the CMB, they will have non-overlapping horizons; distinct patches of the CMB sky were causally disconnected at recombination. Nevertheless, they are observed to be at the same temperature to high precision. The question then is, how did they know ahead of time to coordinate their evolution in the right way, even though they were never in causal contact? We must somehow modify the causal structure of the conventional FRW cosmology. Unwanted Relics We have already talked about grand unified theories (GUTs).

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