By J.R. Becker
Becker explains the actual chemical difficulties linked to waxes and emulsions and the hot applied sciences for remedy of those difficulties. Contents: Petroleum businesses and emulsions Forces inquisitive about macroscopic actual habit of emulsions Oil and water emulsion breakers Petroleum businesses and waxes Chemical surfaces Wax crystal order and temperature Wax: actual homes and quantum results Ashaltenes and crude oil Ashaltenes: bulk habit and checking out equipment actual houses of treating chemical compounds Appendices
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Additional info for Crude Oil Waxes, Emulsions, and Asphaltenes
Thus, the naphthoic and stearic acids will tend to aggregate in groups of like molecules. These aggregate groupings will collect at the interface between the nonpolar and polar phases and remain grouped at the interface (see Fig. 2–7). This explains why the emulsions formed in a mixed system tend to exhibit a partitioning of bipolar emulsifying agents. These partitioned groupings, however, do not necessarily produce smaller, stronger emulsions simply because of their intermolecular attraction forces.
As a result of these calculations, it was found that although a single layer bipolar emulsifier could be constructed from the quantities supplied, that this emulsion would not be stable. What the calculations did not determine was the ability of the emulsifier to form larger aggregate emulsions, which would exclude some of the water phase. Neither did they show the effects of multilayering of the emulsifier and similar exclusion of some of the water phase. Perhaps the most important aspect is the insight into the semiquantitative characteristics of emulsion systems.
56th ed. Cleveland: CRC Press, 1975–1976. 48 3 Macroscopic Physical Behavior of Emulsions Viscosity Viscosity effects exhibited by emulsions tend to be complicated due to their variable composition, average emulsion size, and the individual viscosities of their phases. Thus, measurements of viscosity over widely varying conditions of temperature and shear stress are necessary to elucidate the possible interactions responsible. Consequently, dynamic instruments like the one depicted in Figure 3–1 are most valuable.