By C P Lee; D Rao Sanadi
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Extra info for Current topics in bioenergetics Vol. 13
The constitutive low-affinity-TrKA transport system + requires ATP as well as Δ/Ι Η and also operates with R b . Other cellular + membranes possess transport systems for K and for several other inor+ + 2+ ganic ions such as N a , R b , C a , and CI"; hence the presence of these transport systems and their mode of operation should be clearly established before using one of these ions as a Δψ probe. Bakker (1982) has + measured the R b distribution as a function of the valinomycin concentra+ tion in a K -transport-negative strain of E.
5 mM. , 1976; Wilson and Forman, 1982), or with the K 34 GIOVANNI FELICE AZZONE et al electrode (Mitchell and Moyle, 1969a). Alternatively, the K concentration is assumed as 50% of the medium osmolarity (Rossi and Azzone, 1969). 39 There are, however, indications based on K spin echo NMR measure+ ments (Cope and Damadian, 1970) that some K is not free in bacteria. , 1971) that some K is not free, but is either bound to fixed charges (Jones and Karreman, 1969) or solvated in semicrystalline cell water (Cope and Damadian, 1970).
Marked uncoupling effects of TPB" in chromatophores of Rhodopseudomonas capsulata have been reported to occur at very low concentrations (Baccarini-Melandri et aL, 1981). In the presence of 5 μΜ TPB", the initial rate of phosphorylation is inhibited by 20-30%, and Δψ, calcu+ lated from the carotenoid shift, is depressed from 210 to 140 mV. T P M P also stimulates the resting respiratory rate of mitochondria proportionally to the increase of concentration in the range between 15 and 300 μΜ + (Azzone et aL, 1977a).