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By D. Rao Sanadi

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If there is a branch chain which does not return to the main chain and is not re­ lated to it stoichiometrically, the rate of consumption of reactants would reflect two input processes. Our analysis will assume that this is not the case or that subsidiary reaction sequences may be ignored. , it "circulates" between the forms pumpL and pump R . As Katchalsky and Spangler (1968) have pointed out, the circulation of a species makes no formal contribution to the dissipation function although it influences the phenomenological coefficients.

Examples of level flow are a short-circuited fuel cell, the physiological transport of salt or water between isotonic solutions, and an unloaded muscle contraction. NONEQUILIBRIUM THERMODYNAMICS 39 Clearly input energy must be expended to maintain level flow, even though output is zero. If the driving force X2 is either fixed or known to have the same value both at level flow and at static head, the measurement of q is straightforward. All that is required is to determine the input flow (or fuel consumption) in t h e two stationary states, since under these conditions j static head Q2=i-Jji^n^ C.

Hence Φ may become vanishingly " T h e degree of coupling between a pair of flows may likewise be given for a system in which more than two flows interact (Caplan, 1966a). In this case the definition is analogous to Eq. , qy = — RijIvRuRjj. This measures the extent to which the ith flow is dragged by the j t h flow when no other flows are present and the force con­ jugate to the ith flow is zero. 38 S. ROY CAPLAN small as compared to input and output. This means that the process approaches reversibility as the rate tends to zero.

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